Résumés en anglais des articles de La Revue russe 47
1. Destins individuels
L’Alliance franco-russe : ombres et lumières, par Gérard Abensour
A trying effect of the French-Russian Alliance
In accordance with the spirit of the French-Russian Alliance, the Russian High Command sent in 1916 an Expeditionary corps, involving about 20.000 men, to fight against Germany on the French front. These men were praised for their feats in the terrible fights which took place in Champagne. But after the revolutions in February and October 1917, the whole picture changed. As their demand for returning home was rebuked by the Provisional government, a group of soldiers revolted against their officers at the French camp of La Courtine. After the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk only a few officers and soldiers went on fighting on the French soil as members of the Russian Legion of Honour. Eventually those who did not want to stay in France were returned to Russia in 1920. A war Memorial has been set up in Champagne, to honour the Russian participation to the battle of France during World War I.
La Première Guerre mondiale vue à travers les archives de la famille Kopiloff, par Andrey Pavlov
First World War through Kopiloff’s family archives
First World War and 1917 Revolution in Russia had a tremendous impact on Russia’s history and still influence the mentality of Russian society. Academic studies are concentrated mostly on political or military dimensions of these events. Russian historians have just recently started to pay more attention to personal war experience and personal perceptions of the war and revolution. The article demonstrates how a family archive may become a good source of information for this kind of studies.
Pierre Pascal et la mentalité russe pendant la Première Guerre mondiale, par Olga Danilova
Pierre Pascal : Russian mentality-in the context of First World War events
The paper analyzes Pierre Pascal’s Memoirs with a focus on World War I, the Russian Empire and military action. Pascal spent time in his Memoirs not only analyzing current events, but also pondering the intricacies of the Russian soul, attempting to understand a country he loved and the Russian people suffering during this war. His “Russian Memoirs” are a kind of literary monument to Russia, a country that was deeply convulsed by war and revolution ; they are an invaluable source for the intellectual history of that period.
De l’armée russe à la « milice du Christ » : l’engagement de Julia Danzas, demoiselle d’honneur de l’Impératrice, par Michel Niqueux
From Russian army to Militiae Christi : the engagement of Julia Danzas, maid of honour of Empress Maria Feodorovna.
Julia Danzas (Athens, 1879 - Rome, 1942), maid of honour of Empress Maria Feodorovna, engaged during First World War in a squadron of Cossacks. After the revolution, she converted to Catholicism and pronounced monastic vows in Petrograd, before being arrested in 1923. Self-sacrifice and feminism are the basis of the exploits of Julia Danzas, both military and spiritual.
Journal de guerre de Iossif Ilyine, officier russe, 1914-1916 par Véronique Jobert
Iosif Ilyin’s War Diary (1914-1916)
This diary, written by a Russian artillery officer, begins on the day of the Russian mobilization order. For two and a half years, Iosif Ilyin, who was wounded right at the beginning of WWI, described the war horror, the situation in the rear of the country, not only in Saint-Petersburg, Moscow, Penza, Kiev and other provincial towns, but also in the family estate near Simbirsk. Notwithstanding a deep love for his homeland, he makes very interesting comments about the lack of organization in the army, the backwardness of the Russian people and the general bribery and corruption all around the country. His descriptions of the countryside are lyrical and very well put. In other words, this diary is of great historical and literary interest.
Une guerre qui n’en finit pas…, par Hélène Menegaldo
An endless war…
The exploitation of the family archives gathered in Kiev by my brother has enabled me to reconstitute the itineraries of our father and his brothers, caught in the turmoil of the First World War, then in those of the civil war. To cope with the events of this very complex period, especially in Ukraine, by analysing individual destinies, leads to an inner approach of History, which is grasped in the making. It also leads to ask ourselves questions about the blanks and the unsaid, still numerous, of the historical text, about what were the motivations of individual and collective choices at the origin of « a people’s tragedy ».
Un destin laminé : Yakov Braun, socialiste-révolutionnaire et écrivain, par Galia Ackerman
Yakov Braun : a squashed destiny
This paper is an attempt to raise interest in a forgotten Russian-speaking Jewish Ukrainian writer, as talented as Isaak Babel or Gustav Meyrink, born in 1899 (or 1894) in Elisavetgrad. Socialist-revolutionary since his early youth, he was a prominent left-wing SR activist, constantly persecuted from 1921 till his execution in 1937. There are only three novels left of him and a number of literary essays. One of these novels, A Mob Law, was published in his lifetime, two others - found in the State Literary and Art archives - are typewritten manuscripts : together, they represent a vertiginous immersion into the Jewish provincial life under the Tsarist Empire and into the agitation and turmoil during the First World War, between the February and October Revolutions and during the Civil War. Yakov Braun’s life is emblematic of the Bolshevik treatment of the non-Marxist revolutionaries which aimed at erasing any trace of a writer who was close to Maïakovski, Essenine and Zamiatine, to name a few…
Zinaïda Hippius, Boris Savinkov, Alexandre Kerenski face à la guerre, par Anne Hogenhuis
Zinaïda Hippius, Boris Savinkov and Alexander Kerenski’s Stand towards War
The letters exchanged between transgressive writer Hippius and exiled terrorist Savinkov, from August 1914 on, reflect the stand of left-wing intellectuals towards war. Their long-standing discussions about revolution give way to strong patriotic feelings. For him, Russia must come first and Hippius rejects the prospect of a Christian revolution while the war drags on at heavy costs. Through Hippius’s diaries, we see both of them teaming up with Kerenski as he advocates a renewed war effort in line with the Entente. However, after November 1917, they gradually split, as Hippius gets deluded in the motives of Russia’s Allies while Savinkov keeps relying on their support to the bitter end, which he meets in a desperate move.
La mythologie de la guerre dans les articles de Vassili Rozanov, par Alexandre Medvedev
« We started a war, self-satisfied » :-the mythology of a war in Vasily Rozanov’s publicism
The perception of World War I in Vasily Rozanov’s works (« The War of 1914 and Russian Renaissance », Petrograd, 1915 ; « In the Fumes of War », Petrograd, Moscow, 1916 ; « The Apocalypse of Our Time », Sergiev Posad, 1917-1918) is considered in the context of articles by Konstantin Leontyev, Nikolai Berdyaev and Mikhail Prishvin’s diary, as well as in the historical and cultural context of the World War I (Cossack Kozma Kryuchkov, publicist Mikhail Menshikov, singer Maria Dolina-Gorlenko). The Slavophile ideology (the myth of Holy Russia) is revealed in Rozanov’s discourse about the war, which became the basis of state propaganda
Maximilian Volochine, chroniqueur de la Grande Guerre : Un regard depuis Paris, par Tatiana Victoroff
Maximilian Volochine, Chronicler of the Great War :-A Look From Paris
Volochine, witnessing the Great War from Dornach and Paris, develops a historical, metaphysical and poetical vision of it in a set of articles for Russian readers of Биржевые ведомости and in a poetic cycle Anno mundi ardentis 1915. In front of this “civil war” in which Europe is committing suicide, he sees in this a Judgment from above which soon moves to Russia. The compassionate poet stands between the belligerents, praying for people from both sides and welcoming them without discrimination in the haven of his “House of the Poet”.
Mobilisation familiale : les Gunzburg en 14-18, par Lorraine de Meaux
Family Mobilization : The Gunzburgs during First World War
The Gunzburgs were Russian Jews established in Petrograd, Odesa, Paris, London, Vienna, Lausanne and Braila. Their archives, full of letters, memories, photographs, military papers or passports, offer an intimate chronicle of the First World War. There was no emphasis nor any signs of nationalism in the vision of this very privileged family of bankers : during those hard times, they showed a strong family spirit and a constant military and civilian commitment.
2. Mémoire collective
Le centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale en Russie : la mémoire de la coopération franco-russe, par Alexandre Khodnev
The Centenary of the First World War :-the Russian-French Cooperation-in the Contemporary Historical Memory in Russia
The article reveals the boom of historical memory studies in present day Russia. The officially supported memory of the First World War hardly existed in Russia before the end of the 1980s. Interest in the history of the World War I rapidly revived only in the 1990s. Franco-Russian cooperation has become an important theme of the new commemorative practices. However, the First World War remains for Russians in the shadow of the victory in the Great Patriotic War (World War II).
De la guerre « impérialiste » à la « Seconde Guerre patriotique » : l’espace mémoriel russe de la Première Guerre mondiale, par Konstantin Pakhalyuk
From « Imperialistic War » to « Second Patriotic War » :-Spaces of Memory and Commemoration of WWI in Russia
The article is devoted to the memory of First World War in modern Russia. The author points to the dependence of public discourse of approaches developed in pre-revolutionary and Soviet times, as well as « memory communities », emerged in 1990-s. The determining factor is structuring of this issue by patriotic and media discourses, as well as by current political events (crisis in Ukraine and pressure upon the political opposition). Patriotic discourse forges symbolic national unity by offering a common frame of interpretation and aims at establishing affective relationship to the past (feeling of pride for heroic deeds and achievements), while the choice of heroes and victories to be proud of in the symbolic space is left at the discretion of some community organisations.
La Première Guerre mondiale vue par le cinéma russe, par Alexey Belogoryev
World War I in the Mirror of the Russian Cinema
The article is devoted to the peculiarities of World War I reflection in the Russian and Soviet cinema from 1914 (in detail - from 1927) to 2016. In addition to the separate review of about 30 feature films and television series, the article contains their comparative analysis and evaluation of the role of the cinema in the creation of the Russian cultural and historical perception of World War I. Traditionally, WWI in the Soviet cinema is seen as the background for the Russian Revolution, the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. Since 2010 a new trend of delayed glorification of war heroes has appeared in the Russian cinema. Russia is actually the only country that still has no anti-war cinema while taking part in the twentieth century world wars.
La Première Guerre mondiale dans les manuels russes, par Elena Samartseva
First World War in Modern Russian History Textbooks.
The paper investigates the way World War I is dealt with in Russian universities and schools. It reviews schoolbooks and university textbooks written by V.V. Artemov and Y.N. Lubchenkov, V.V. Fortunatov, D.I. Oleynikov, A.S. Orlov and others, some of which may be accessed online. Other ways of getting knowledge about World War I events are lectures, as well as various workshop teaching tools such as discussing feature or documentary films, or studying authentic supports, such as letters and memoirs. Also some questionnaires are used in order to assess the knowledge about WWI. In these commemoration years many students become aware of insufficient knowledge about such an important subject. Many gaps in WWI history studies are yet to be filled.